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大乐透复式中1加二多钱:經濟學人下載:治愈混凝土癌癥(1)

Source: Economist    2019-11-15  我要投稿   論壇   Favorite  

Modern civilisation is built on concrete and steel. Put the two together, though, and you can generate a problem.
現代文明是建立在鋼筋混凝土基礎上的。然而,將兩者結合起來,就會產生一個問題。

Reinforcing concrete with steel rods called rebars is the basis of modern construction.
鋼筋混凝土是現代建筑的基礎。

But because water gets in through tiny cracks, the rebars rust. This causes them to expand, widening the cracks and weakening the concrete.
但是因為水會從細小的裂縫里滲透進來,所以鋼筋會生銹了。這會導致裂縫擴大,混凝土變軟。

Hence such structures require constant attention and often have design lives of only 60-100 years.
因此這樣的結構需要持續的關注,并且其設計壽命僅有60到100年。

That is pitiful compared with, say, the concrete dome of the Pantheon in Rome—which was completed in 125ad and still stands.
這與羅馬萬神殿的圓頂相比,簡直是小巫見大巫,羅馬萬神殿建成于公元125年,至今仍屹立不倒。

Various ways of delaying or preventing concrete cancer, as this corrosion is known colloquially, have been tried.
人們已經嘗試了各種延遲或預防混凝土癌癥(腐蝕的通俗說法)的方法。

These include recipes for concrete that is less permeable to water,
其中包括不透水混凝土的配方,

and rebars made from rust-resistant materials such as stainless steel or composites.
以及由不銹鋼或復合材料等防銹材料制成的鋼筋。

Such approaches work, but they can be expensive. This may be about to change.
這種方法確實有效,但成本可能很高。這種情況可能即將改變。

Next year, if all goes well, a pair of footbridges intended to be cancer-proof will open in Geelong, a town 75km south-west of Melbourne, Australia.
明年,如果一切順利,澳大利亞墨爾本西南75公里處的吉朗鎮將建成兩座防癌人行橋。

These bridges, which will act as prototypes for more than 150 others planned for the expanding city,
這些橋梁將用作其他150多個城市擴張計劃的原型,

will be constructed using a novel approach that combines glass-fibre and carbon-fibre rebars.
且將使用一種結合玻璃纖維和碳纖維鋼筋的新方法來建造。

They will, though, cost about the same as equivalent conventional bridges.
不過,它們的造價將與同等的傳統橋梁差不多。

The new design is the brainchild of a joint team of researchers from Deakin, a local university, and Austeng, the firm contracted to build the bridges.
新設計將由來自當地迪肯大學和橋梁承建公司Austeng的聯合研究團隊共同完成。

This team began with commercially available rebars made from carbon-fibre composite.
這個團隊開始使用由碳纖維復合材料制成的商業鋼筋。

Although these are as strong as steel ones, they are expensive.
雖然它們和鋼的一樣堅固,但是它們很貴。

They are, therefore, most often used in specialist structures such as buildings to house MRI hospital scanners,
因此,它們最常被用在一些特殊的建筑物上,比如用來放置核磁共振醫院掃描儀的建筑物,

where electromagnetic interference from metal can cause problems.
在那里來自金屬的電磁干擾可能會造成問題。


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